City of Savannah Water Resources Department

I&D System

Water System Number GA0510004

The City of Savannah Water Supply and Treatment department is pleased to report that your drinking water, supplied by the I&D System, is safe. To learn more about safety regulations and testing, see the table included in this report.


Creek water source
The I&D System is supplied with surface water from Abercorn Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River located in Effingham County. In 2020, the I&D System produced 15,495 million gallons of surface water for a population of 8,892 residential customers and 12 industrial and wholesale customers. In 2019, the City constructed a 97-million-gallon reservoir to hold treated water from Abercorn Creek. This reservoir increases our capacity to supply safe water in a natural or man-made emergency. The I&D plant and the reservoir are unique to Coastal Georgia and play an important role in the region’s future drinking water supply.


Treated water
In the surface water treatment process, alum and polymer are added to the water to cause fine mud particles to clump together and settle out of the water. The clear water is then filtered, disinfected with chlorine and ammonia, and balanced for pH and corrosiveness with lime and phosphate.


Tested drinking water
Each water system is required to participate in a Sanitary Survey conducted by EPD on a cycle not to exceed three years. In 2016, a sanitary survey of the I&D System was completed by EPD. In addition, the City of Savannah Water Laboratory performed more than 131,000 tests and procedures, on over 160 water quality parameters, during 2020 to ensure water quality.


Glass of clean drinking water
This clean, safe, drinking water is then distributed to your home. The City of Savannah provides some of the highest quality, most affordable drinking water in the Southeast.

Protecting the Source

Source Water Assessment Plan: In 2002, the City of Savannah completed a Source Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) for Abercorn Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. In 2019, an update was completed. The purpose of updating the SWAP was to identify new potential contamination sources throughout the watershed and to determine the risks these sources pose to the water supply. The overall contaminant susceptibility for Abercorn Creek is MEDIUM. This is an increase from the 2002 report rating of LOW. Some Potential Pollution Sources (PPS) include: the number of pipe and road stream crossings, sewer lift stations and pipelines, commercial and industrial areas, residential septic systems, and golf courses. Savannah employs two real-time detection systems to ensure these potential sources do not enter our water supply. A complete list of all PPS, their substances of concern and the assessment methods are in the SWAP.

In order to protect our drinking water supplies, the City has joined a collaboration of people interested in protecting the quality of the Savannah River for future generations and keeping drinking water affordable. The collaboration includes representatives from five water utilities in Georgia and South Carolina. It also includes representatives from the US Endowment for Forestry and Communities, The Nature Conservancy, and Savannah Riverkeeper. For more information please contact Laura Walker, Water Resources Environmental Manager at (912) 651-2221 or via email.

Tap Water Vs. Bottled Water

All sources of drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some substances. All water sources are fed by water that passes over the land or through the ground, dissolving naturally occurring minerals and materials, or picking up substances along the way. These substances may include:

  1. Biological substances from humans, agriculture, or wildlife sources
  2. Inorganic substances from stormwater runoff, industrial sources, or wastewater discharges
  3. Insecticides and herbicides from agriculture, stormwater runoff or residential use
  4. Organic chemicals from industrial or domestic processes, stormwater runoff, or septic systems
  5. Radioactive materials that can be naturally occurring or the result of mining or other human activities

The difference is in how they are regulated. Your tap water is much more stringently regulated – it is tested hundreds of times a month for over 100 different contaminants. Bottled water, on the other hand, is only required to be tested once a week for some substances. Higher levels of at least 13 contaminants are allowed in bottled water than tap water. And tap water providers are required to share their quality in reports such as this one, and to notify the public if a potentially dangerous contaminant is found. Bottled water providers are not required to provide the public with this information.

If you drink the recommended 8 cups of water a day of tap water it will cost you $0.50 a year. The same amount of bottled water will cost $1,400 a year. That's 3000x the price for a less safe product!

The Importance of Forested Watersheds

Forested watersheds are an investment in our water supply. A watershed is the area of land where all the water that falls on it drains to one stream or river – every river has a watershed that runs off into it, feeding it. How the land is used in that watershed can help to determine the quality of water in the river or stream. Forests help to capture rainfall and replenish and clean our water supply. By maintaining healthy forest cover in the watersheds that feed our drinking water supply, we can help to improve the quality of the water and reduce the treatment needed to meet drinking water standards.

The I&D System draws water from Abercorn Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. The Savannah River Watershed is 75% forested. The Savannah River Clean Water Fund was created to protect the forest and keep future water supplies safe and affordable.

Studies have found that for every 10% increase in forest cover in the drinking water source watershed, treatment and chemical costs decrease by about 20%.

Drinking Water Analysis

The City has met all sampling and reporting requirements.

Substance tested and detected
Total Triahlomethanes (TTHMs)
Haloacetic Acids (HAA5)
Total Organic Carbon
Probable Source
Water additive used to control microbes Water additive used to control microbes Byproduct of water chlorination Byproduct of water chlorination Naturally present in the environment Soil runoff Corrosion of household plumbing Corrosion of household plumbing
Amount Detected
2.06 ppm 2.27 ppm 75 ppb 60 ppb 35-50%
(Removal Required)
99.72% of samples were below 0.3 NTU 9.6 ppb
(90th Percentile)
230 ppb
(90th Percentile)
Meets Drinking Water Standards
Maximum Disinfectant Residual Level Goal
The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health.
4 ppm 4 ppm
Maximum Disinfectant Residual Level Allowed
The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.
4 ppm 4 ppm
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
The level of contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health, allowing for a margin of safety.
0 ppb 0 ppb Not applicable 0 NTU 0 ppb 1300 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Level Allowed
The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. This level is set as close to the goal as feasible using the best available treatment technology.
80 ppb 60 ppb Treatment technique Treatment technique = 1 NTU or 95% of samples < 0.3 NTU
Action Level
The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow.
15 ppb 1300 ppb
Range Detected During Reporting Year
0.12-2.06 ppm 0-2.27 ppm 22.7-75 ppb 24-60 ppb 33.33-63.51% Removal Not applicable No sample greater than action level No sample greater than action level
Units: ppm = part per million or 1 in 1,000,000. ppb = parts per billion or 1 in 1,000,000,000. NTU = Nephelometric turbidity units.
Treatment Technique: A required treatment technique or process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.
Copper and lead are the only two substances monitored at the customer's tap. They were last sampled in 2017.
Total Organic Carbon removal compliance is based on an annual average.

We are required to monitor your drinking water for specific contaminants on a regular basis. Results of regular monitoring are an indicator of whether or not our drinking water meets health standards.

Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring

Total Organic Carbon
Amount Detected
11 ppb 34.3 ppb 6,400 ppb 47.4 ppb 8.56 ppb 55.96 ppb
Range Detected During Reporting Year
8-11 ppb 20.6-34.3 ppb 3,170-6,400 ppb 24.73-47.4 ppb 4.6-8.56 ppb 30.01-55.96 ppb

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the City of Savannah to participate in the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation 3 (UCMR 3) program. Unregulated contaminants are those for which EPA has not established drinking water standards. The purpose of unregulated contaminant monitoring is to assist EPA in determining the occurrence of unregulated contaminants in drinking water and whether future regulation is warranted.

If you have any questions regarding safe drinking water regulations or these test results, you may contact the City of Savannah Water Supply and Treatment Department at (912) 964-0698.

Health Information

Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immune-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their healthcare providers.

EPA/Center for Disease control guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risks of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791.

If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. The City of Savannah is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing fixtures. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking. If you have concerns about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 or at